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Melanotan 2 Peptide: Endocrinology, Hunger, and More

Melanotan 2 (MT-II) is one of the most intriguing research peptides, and it is being evaluated for its potential action in various research avenues. Clinical research has suggested that the a-MSH analog may exert a widespread array of action. The latency periods, potential effects, recommended practices for researchers of MT-II, and its potential research properties are detailed in this article. On top of that, we will tell researchers where to get the highest quality Melanotan 2 online. Keep reading to learn more about this cutting-edge peptide, from how it appears to act physiologically to how to employ it correctly in your studies.

Melanotan 2 Peptide: What is it?

Multiple research studies have indicated that Melanotan 2 (MT-II) may have many areas of impact, and has been studied in relation to photoprotection, neuroprotection, skin cell pigmentation, and sexual behaviors. MT-II has been hypothesized to influence several vital biological functions as a synthetic version of the natural neuropeptide and melanocortin agonist alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Functions such as inflammation response, sexual arousal, and melanogenesis are believed to be regulated by the five separate receptors that make up the melanocortin system.

Due to its shortened shape and lactic ring, MT-II is structurally classified as a cyclic heptapeptide. The main targets of MT-II are thought to be the melanocortin receptors that may potentially regulate melanogenesis (MC1R) and sexual behavior (MC4R). It has also been theorized to potentially affect metabolic processes and energy expenditure via interactions with the MC3R receptor. Research indicates that Melanotan 2 may be a hundred times more powerful than its parent hormone but appears to mimic its actions to a far larger extent. Experimental studies in various research settings have expanded from its original hypothesis as a synthetic tanning agent.

Melanotan 2 Peptide: Related Peptides

Experimental studies are also conducted on related α-MSH compounds, such as MT-I, a companion melanocortin agonist. A linear tridecapeptide that serves as a precursor to MT-II, MT-I is believed to mainly work on MC1R to induce pigmentation impacts and perform other unique tasks. Ongoing research is also being conducted on PT-141, a modified derivative of α-MSH that has been approved for research in the context of premenopausal low libido. Investigations purport that Melanotan 2 may have many potential actions. Read on to learn about these properties, potential impacts, the ideal guidelines, and where researchers may get high-quality Melanotan 2 at the lowest possible price.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Melanin

Findings imply that MT-II may increase melanin synthesis by upregulating melanogenesis at the MC1R receptor to darken and pigment the stratum corneum layer of the skin barrier. There is speculation that the melanotropic agent may potentially mitigate the unwanted effects of ultraviolet radiation skin, including photodamage and acute dermatoses.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Sexual Responsiveness

The potential of MT-II to improve sexual responsiveness in both sexes is based on its activation of the third and fourth melanocortin receptors; nevertheless, its primarily researched potential has been in the area of erectile dysfunction.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Mood

Animal studies have suggested that MT-II, as an MC4R agonist, may potentially reduce negative reward patterns in the brain, such as addiction. This may be due to the associated receptor’s increased production of the neurotransmitter Oxytocin, suggested to moderate impulsivity, social attunement, and increase bonding.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Hunger

Several animal investigations have suggested additional impacts of MT-II on melanocortin receptor 4. These impacts may include altered macronutrient preferences and reduced appetite. The second one involves the lipolytic activity related to the dissolution of glucose during digestion, and the reduction of fat cell storage. This suggests that MT-II may have potential in obesity-related research.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Metabolism

There is speculation that MT-II may regulate blood glucose levels via its action on melanocortin receptors 3 and 4, which suggests that it may be able to reverse the effects of metabolic disorders.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Fat Cells

The melanocortin system’s involvement in energy expenditure and fat accumulation suggests that MT-II may have certain potential in alleviating obesity. Animal studies have indicated a correlation between MT-II and decreased fat cell storage. Promising continuing research is investigating additional relevance of MT-II in future research studies.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Tanning

In several experimental studies, Melanotan 2 was evaluated as a synthetic tanning agent, following planned UV exposure periods. Although properties may not be immediately apparent, most researchers hypothesized the peptide to exhibit a difference after a week of peptide exposure in animal models. The results are believed to vary with different concentrations. Although there is a latency period for noticeable tanning impacts, studies have reported that MC1R activation may potentially provide rapid photoprotective properties.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Behaviour

Within seven days of daily MT-II exposure, a full reversal of autistic behavioral traits was speculated in male mice models of autism-adjacent behaviors, according to the MIA model. All of this points to MT-II’s potential in the context of autism research.

Concerning the effects and behavior of addiction, MT-II has appeared to have reduced the neurotoxic consequences of alcohol exposure while decreasing ethanol intake in animal tests. Among them, one suggested that the animal models’ ethanol-seeking behavior seemed to have decreased during the first hour and remained lower for up to 24 hours after presentation. Although further study is needed, it is believed that MC3R and MC4R stimulation might influence this and may potentially apply to other addictive compounds.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Food Intake

Animal studies suggest that within 24 hours of presentation, MT-II may drastically reduce hunger and alter macronutrient preferences.

Melanotan 2 Peptide and Endocrinology

Research on rats indicated MT-II may regulate insulin sensitivity after 24 hours of presentation. However, after 10 days of continuous exposure, the rats suggested considerable improvements in insulin sensitivity.

Further mouse experiments have suggested that MT-II may be practical in lowering fat and promoting weight reduction. According to one study, rats given MT-II daily for 40 days seemed to exhibit reduced fat and adiposity. There also appeared to be an increase in thermogenesis.

Scientists are encouraged to visit Core Peptides for the highest quality and most affordable research compounds currently available online. Please note that none of the substances mentioned in this article have been approved for human or animal consumption.

References:

[i] Dorr RT, Lines R, Levine N, Brooks C, Xiang L, Hruby VJ, Hadley ME. Evaluation of melanotan-II, a superpotent cyclic melanotropic peptide in a pilot phase-I clinical study. Life Sci. 1996;58(20):1777-84. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(96)00160-9. PMID: 8637402.

[ii] Minakova E, Lang J, Medel-Matus JS, Gould GG, Reynolds A, Shin D, Mazarati A, Sankar R. Melanotan-II reverses autistic features in a maternal immune activation mouse model of autism. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 10;14(1):e0210389. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210389. PMID: 30629642; PMCID: PMC6328175.

[iii] Wessells H, Levine N, Hadley ME, Dorr R, Hruby V. Melanocortin receptor agonists, penile erection, and sexual motivation: human studies with Melanotan II. Int J Impot Res. 2000 Oct;12 Suppl 4:S74-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijir.3900582. PMID: 11035391.

[iv] King SH, Mayorov AV, Balse-Srinivasan P, Hruby VJ, Vanderah TW, Wessells H. Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1098-1106. PMID: 17584130; PMCID: PMC2694735.

[v] Ryakhovsky VV, Khachiyan GA, Kosovova NF, Isamiddinova EF, Ivanov AS. The first preparative solution phase synthesis of melanotan II. Beilstein J Org Chem. 2008;4:39. doi: 10.3762/bjoc.4.39. Epub 2008 Oct 30. PMID: 19043625; PMCID: PMC2587946.

[vi] Brennan, R., Wells, J. G., & Van Hout, M. C. (2014). An unhealthy glow? A review of melanotan use and associated clinical outcomes. Performance Enhancement & Health, 3(2), 78–92. doi:10.1016/j.peh.2015.06.001

[vii] Hadley ME, Dorr RT. Melanocortin peptide therapeutics: historical milestones, clinical studies and commercialization. Peptides. 2006 Apr;27(4):921-30. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides. Epub. PMID: 16412534.

[viii] Ückert S, Bannowsky A, Albrecht K, Kuczyk MA. Melanocortin receptor agonists in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunctions: results from basic research and clinical studies. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014 Nov;23(11):1477-83. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2014.934805. Epub 2014 Aug 6. PMID: 25096243.

[ix] Lerma-Cabrera JM, Carvajal F, Garbutt JC, Navarro M, Thiele TE. The melanocortin system as a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders: A review of pre-clinical data. Brain Res. 2020 Mar 1;1730:146628. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146628. Epub. PMID: 31891691; PMCID: PMC7023989.

[x] Heijboer AC, van den Hoek AM, Pijl H, Voshol PJ, Havekes LM, Romijn JA, Corssmit EP. Intracerebroventricular administration of melanotan II increases insulin sensitivity of glucose disposal in mice. Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1621-6. doi: 10.1007/s00125-005-1838-8. Epub PMID: 15971058.

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